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Basic Accounting Principles: An introduction to accounting for beginners

Accounting is an extremely important part of running any business. Basic accounting principles are an important tool for understanding and managing your finances. This introduction to bookkeeping basics will provide you with enough knowledge to be able to do your bookkeeping and financial reporting properly. We will talk about what accounting is and the basic principles of accounting. We will also look at accounting systems and financial management software, as well as planning and budgeting.


  • Accounting is the process of collecting, processing and presenting financial information about a company’s activities. It is the basis for managing finances and making the right business decisions.
  • The basic principles of accounting are defined by international accounting standards (IFRS), which must be followed in order to make correct financial accounting.
  • Accounting books and records are used to collect information on all financial transactions that have taken place in the company.
  • Accounting accounts and transaction categories are used to determine which accounts should be posted for a specific type of transaction.
  • Convergence and accounting requirements are procedures and rules that must be used to standardize financial information and improve its quality.
  • Accounting systems and financial management software are tools that enable companies to easily maintain financial accounts and track assets and liabilities.
  • Planning and budgeting are procedures that enable better management of a company’s assets and liabilities and the adjustment of activities to the financial situation.
  • Financial analysis and financial reporting are important tools that allow a company’s finances to be assessed and its performance to be compared with others in the same industry.


Accounting is an accounting system that organizes and monitors financial transaction data. The basic principles of book keeping help manage revenues, expenses and liabilities, making it easier to understand a company’s finances.

To begin bookkeeping, you must first learn the basic principles of accounting. These principles include:

  • Systems for documenting and recording finances: You must use a system of documentation and recording of finances so that all transactions are recorded and tracked continuously.
  • Maintaining reliable financial records: You must have reliable financial records so that you can properly account to the IRS and others.
  • Establish an accounting method: You must determine the accounting method to be used to ensure consistent financial reporting. You can choose a cost-based accounting method or a value-based method.
  • Use of accounting systems and financial management software: There are computer programs for financial management, such as accounting systems and planning and budgeting software. These programs are used to automate the process of creating financial reports.

If you want to have full control over your finances, you need to learn the basics of accounting. This knowledge will help you better analyze and interpret financial data, which will allow you to better manage your funds.

Basic accounting concepts and terminology

To understand the basics of accounting, you need to learn some basic concepts and terms. The following list should help you understand the most important accounting concepts:

  • Account: An account is an item created in the accounting books that is used to track a specific type of financial transaction. Each account has a balance (present value) and can be used to create financial statements.
  • Asset and liability accounts: Asset and liability accounts are the two main categories of accounts that make up the accounting system. Asset accounts are items that contribute to the value of a company, such as machinery and buildings. Liability accounts are items that reduce the value of the company, such as debts and shares.
  • Debit and credit: These words are often used in accounting. Debit means an increase in the balance of a particular account. When something is debited, it means that something is added to the balance. On the other hand, credit means to decrease the balance in a given account. When something is credited, it means that something is subtracted from the balance.
  • Profit and loss: Profit and loss are very important concepts in accounting. Profit indicates that your company has been successful and has recorded income higher than expenses. A loss indicates that your company has recorded losses compared to expenses.

Learning these basic terms and concepts should help you better understand the basics of accounting.

What is accounting?
What is accounting? Photo- pixabay.com

What is accounting?

Accounting is the process of creating and maintaining financial records for an organization. This process includes both periodic financial reporting and detailed recording of transactions. Bookkeeping is an essential tool for proper financial management in any company. It conveys information about revenues and expenditures, keeps track of profits and losses, and helps understand how an organization is using its funds.

Accounting includes the following elements:

  • Recording transactions: Every financial transaction must be properly registered in the books. This recording must reflect all transactions that take place in the company, including deposits, withdrawals, income and expenses.
  • Report generation: Reports are an essential tool for analyzing and controlling finances. Reports should be up-to-date so that comparisons can be made and the company’s finances can be accurately monitored.
  • Maintain an up-to-date balance sheet: A balance sheet is a statement of a company’s assets, liabilities and equity. An up-to-date balance sheet allows you to analyze the company’s level of financing and determine its value.

What are the basic accounting principles?

Basic accounting principles are used to create financial reports and documentation of the balance sheet and business operations. Accounting principles include both financial accounting and management accounting. The requirements for basic accounting are set forth in the Accounting Law.

Basic accounting principles can be divided into several main categories:

  • Revenue principle: The idea is that all your revenue should be recognized in a given period.
  • Expense principle: This requires that all expenses be included in the period in which they are incurred.
  • Information provision principle: This means that all accounting information should be presented in a way that is clear and understandable to outsiders.
  • Unit principle: This principle says that all transactions should be recorded and maintained as individual transactions.
  • Balance principle: This means that the sum total of assets must equal the sum total of liabilities.

In addition, there are several other basic accounting principles that are often used by companies. These principles include conformity and fairness, materiality and permanence, and general provisions.

Accounting books and records

Ledgers are the foundation of any accounting system and are a key tool for tracking and analyzing finances. An accounting ledger is a set of records and accounts used to track income and expenses, as well as a company’s balance sheet. Registers are used to record financial transactions, and accounts are used to group transactions around specific resources, expenses or revenues.

Bookkeeping means keeping registers and accounts. Registers are used to record individual financial transactions, such as deposits, disbursements, invoices, etc. Each transaction should have its own register. Accounts are groups of transactions with a specific purpose, such as cash or investments. Accounts also have specific balances that allow the company’s finances to be easily monitored.

Using an accounting system allows companies to easily manage their finances and better plan their budgets. These systems include financial management software and planning and budgeting programs. With these tools, companies can better monitor and analyze their finances, enabling them to make better business decisions.

Accounting accounts and transaction categories

Accounting accounts and transaction categories are important components of accounting. Accounting accounts are used to track income and expenses, while transaction categories are used to determine the type of transaction.

Accounting accounts are divided into three main types: assets, liabilities and funds. Assets are things you own or have some value, such as cash, real estate, inventory and investments. Liabilities are financial obligations, such as loans and tax liabilities. Funds are the company’s current account, where all day-to-day financial transactions are performed.

Transaction categories define the types of transactions that are performed. They can include sales of products or services, expenses for materials, salaries and others. Each transaction should be classified into the appropriate category.

Proper bookkeeping requires an understanding of these basic principles. By creating an accounting account and the appropriate categories of transactions, you can easily track your company’s income and expenses.

Convergence and accounting requirements
Convergence and accounting requirements. Photo- pixabay.com

Convergence and accounting requirements

In today’s world, companies and businesses are increasingly required to follow uniform accounting standards. This is a process known as convergence. Convergence imposes certain requirements on how accounting and financial reporting is done.

Convergence is intended to make it easier to compare financial data between organizations in order to better understand and evaluate the financial situation. For this reason, it is important for companies and businesses to use common standards and apply them to their accounting.

To ensure compliance with these standards, there are a variety of accounting requirements. These include:

  • Proper and updated financial records
  • Maintaining accurate statements of accounts
  • Attaching documentation to each transaction
  • Applying appropriate internal controls
  • Generating financial reports within a specified timeframe

In addition, it is important to make sure that all transactions are conducted in accordance with the law and applicable tax regulations. The company must also have appropriate accounting systems and financial management software for planning and budgeting.

Accounting systems and financial management software

Accounting systems and financial management software are tools that can make bookkeeping easier. Accounting systems are designed to make it easier for an organization to track and record all financial transactions. Financial management software can help create financial reports, plan budgets, track expenses and other bookkeeping tasks.

There are many different accounting systems and financial management software available on the market. Choosing the right system or software for your business will depend on your needs and budget. When choosing a financial management system or software, make sure it is tailored to your company’s needs and is easy to use. Analyze the features that the system or software offers and make sure that it will be flexible enough to adapt to your company’s growing needs.

In order to keep your accounting system or financial management software running smoothly, it is important to update it regularly and keep your data secure. This type of software can be vulnerable to various types of cyber-attacks, so it is important to have updates and technical support. Technical support will help you troubleshoot if your system or financial management software suddenly stops working for no reason.

Planning and budgeting
Planning and budgeting. Photo- pixabay.com

Planning and budgeting

Planning and budgeting is an important part of financial management. It allows you to draw conclusions about your financial situation and set financial goals for your business. Financial planning helps you determine how well to use your funds to achieve your goals. One important component of financial planning is budgeting.

Budgeting is the process of creating a financial plan for a specific period of time. The budget should cover all accounts, including income, expenses and investments. It allows you to predict and monitor all income and expenses, so you can better manage your finances and control spending.

In addition, budgeting allows you to understand where you may have shortfalls or surpluses, and enables you to determine how to use your funds efficiently. Since your budget should be updated regularly, it is also important to constantly monitor your finances and respond to changes accordingly.

To better manage your finances, you can use an accounting system or financial management software. These should help you track your income and expenses and make it easier to create and update your budget. This software will also allow you to compare your actual budget results with your plans to better manage your finances.

Financial analysis and financial reporting

Financial analysis and financial reporting is an important part of bookkeeping. Financial analysis is the process of creating and using financial information to monitor a company’s finances so that the business can be properly managed. Financial reporting is the process of creating and publishing financial documents that show the state of a company’s finances.

The basic principles of financial reporting are as follows:

  • Profit and loss statement: This is the main document that presents the company’s turnover, expenses and profits over a certain period of time.
  • Balance sheet: is a document that presents the company’s current assets, liabilities and equity.
  • Ratio analysis: is a process that uses data from the income statement and balance sheet to assess a company’s efficiency and profitability.

Financial reporting is essential for controlling and monitoring the proper handling of a company’s finances. With reports, you can get a broad picture of the state of the finances and know whether the company is profitable.


In conclusion, basic accounting principles are an important part of any business. They are essential for preparing comprehensive financial results, planning and budgeting. We have looked at accounting basics, systems and financial management software. Understanding the basics of accounting is essential for any entrepreneur or budding businessman.

To ensure your business success, you need to be able to properly use and manage your finances. With the help of accounting basics, you can achieve this. Keep in mind that you need to keep regular accounts and report on your finances in order to manage your business effectively.

  • Set a financial goal and strategy
  • Recording financial transactions
  • Setting accounting policies
  • Maintaining accounts and financial reporting

Frequently asked questions

What are the basic accounting principles?

Basic accounting principles are a set of terminology and rules that must be followed when keeping accounts. The most important of these are: double-entry, general accounting balance sheet principles, the principle of prudence, the cost principle, income over time and the principle of materiality.

What books and records are required to keep accounts?

In order to keep accounting books, basic terms and concepts must be established. Books of accounts are all accounts in which financial transactions are recorded. Registers are documents in which information on individual transactions is recorded. These documents include bills for fees, invoices, reimbursements and expenses. Accounts and records are essential for proper bookkeeping.

Do all companies have to use international accounting standards (IFRS)?

International Accounting Standards (IFRS) are not mandatory for all companies. However, they are mandatory for filing financial statements with many stock exchanges and regulatory organizations in many countries. However, most companies follow IFRS rules to ensure fair and clear information about their finances.

What accounting accounts and transaction categories are used for a particular type of transaction?

Accounting accounts and transaction categories vary depending on the type of transaction. Accounting accounts refer to individual items in a financial report, and transaction categories are the types of assets that companies use to record their transactions.

Transaction categories include assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and costs. Assets are resources that have value to the company, liabilities are liabilities or debts owed to the company, revenues are cash received from other parties, and costs and expenses are money spent on products or services.

Typically, each type of transaction will have a corresponding accounting account or transaction category associated with it. For example, a sale is considered revenue, so it can be classified as income in the financial report. On the other hand, a bill payment can be classified as an expense or cost in the financial report.

What are the procedures and rules for convergence and accounting requirements?

Convergence and accounting requirements are important elements of accounting. The term convergence means conforming to certain rules that are internationally recognized. These requirements are established by the International Accounting Standards Committee (IFRS). The guidelines they establish ensure uniformity in accounting rules and standards, so that the financial performance of companies from different countries can be compared. In addition, there are also national and state accounting regulations.

What accounting systems and financial management software are used to improve the quality of financial information?

Accounting systems and financial management software are used to display and provide reliable financial information. Accounting systems provide complete and reliable data to help with planning, budgeting and performance evaluation. Financial management software can help companies optimize financial operations and increase profitability.

What are the planning and budgeting procedures to better manage a company’s assets and liabilities?

Planning and budgeting are important elements of a company’s financial management. These procedures allow better management of a company’s assets and liabilities. Planning and budgeting include creating financial plans, preparing budgets and analyzing differences between the plan and actual financial results. With the help of these procedures, you can effectively manage the company’s assets and liabilities and better prepare for the future.

How does financial analysis and financial reporting work?

Planning and budgeting are important tools for managing a company’s liabilities and assets. Before you start planning and budgeting, you need to gather all available financial information, such as sales results, profits and losses, fixed costs and other components of the company’s assets and liabilities. Then a projection of revenues and expenses for a specific period of time is created to ensure transparency and verification of this data. Based on this information, a budget is created for the company, which specifies exactly how the money will be spent and what effect can be expected.

Which data are necessary to keep proper financial records?

Financial analysis and financial reporting are important components of an accounting system. Financial analysis uses data from accounting books and other sources to be able to better understand a company’s finances. Financial reporting is the process of creating financial statements, such as the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement. These reports are used to evaluate financial performance and contribute to financial decision-making.

What is the role of an accountant in creating and maintaining an accounting system?

In order to properly maintain the accounting system, you need to gather all the necessary financial data, such as transaction documents, contracts and accounts. Then you need to determine the types of accounts and create accounts for each type of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Financial records can be kept in hard copy or digital form so that you have access to up-to-date financial information. This will make it easier to post transactions quickly and efficiently.

Who can perform a financial audit periodically?

A financial audit is a process of advanced procedures for checking and testing financial data to assess the correctness and accuracy of financial information. Financial audits are conducted periodically and are usually performed by a certified public accountant or auditing firm. Financial audits can also be performed internally by company employees.

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